Thursday, March 19, 2020

Le Cubisme essays

Le Cubisme essays La Le dbut du XX sicle tait une priode trs prolifique pour les mouvements davant-garde. Dune part, la grande libert dexpression garantie par la III Rpublique, la prsence de salons et la commercialisation de lart ouvrirent les portes de nombreux mouvements davant-garde. Grce ceci, de nombreux artistes se sont engags en utilisant de nouvelles techniques qui bouleversaient la conception existante de lart depuis la Renaissance. Parmi les principaux mouvements qui firent cela, nous retrouvons le cubisme. Mais, dans quelle mesure est-ce que le cubisme marque vritablement une rupture dans le monde artistique Pour le voir, nous tudierons les origines du cubisme, ses diffrentes phases et son impacte dans lhistoire de lart. Selon Apollinaire, le cubisme est n en 1907 lors dune rencontre quil suscita entre Picasso et Braque. Pourtant, peu avant cette rencontre, Picasso avait cre Les Demoiselles dAvignon (1906). Il sagit dune uvre qui casse avec toutes les conceptions de lart prexistantes par lclatement de limage sous des formes gomtriques. Par rapport ceci, les trois pres du cubisme tablirent les rgles du mouvement en se fondant sur deux racines principales: luvre de Paul Czanne pour la distribution des formes et lafricanisme, c'estdire lart provenant de lAfrique coloniale. Seul pour certains artistes comme Juan Gris et les artistes, nous pouvons considrer le fauvisme comme inspiration en ce qui concerne les couleurs. Au dbut, Picasso et Braque sinspirent de directement de Czanne dans la mesure quil est un humaniste qui tire de la nature la substanc ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

An Early History of Forensic Entomology, 1300-1900

An Early History of Forensic Entomology, 1300-1900 In recent decades, the use of entomology as a tool in forensic investigations has become fairly routine. The field of forensic entomology has a much longer history than you might suspect, dating all the way back to the 13th century. The First Crime Solved by Forensic Entomology The earliest known case of a crime being solved using insect evidence comes from medieval China. In 1247, the Chinese lawyer Sung Tsu wrote a textbook on criminal investigations called The Washing Away of Wrongs. In his book, Tsu recounts the story of a murder near a rice field. The victim had been slashed repeatedly, and investigators suspected the weapon used was a sickle, a common tool used in the rice harvest. How could the murderer be identified, when so many workers carried these tools? The local magistrate brought all the workers together  and told them to lay down their sickles. Though all the tools looked clean, one quickly attracted hordes of flies. The flies could sense the residue of blood and tissue invisible to the human eye. When confronted by this jury of flies, the murderer confessed to the crime. Dispelling the Myth of Spontaneous Generation of Maggots Just as people once thought the world was flat and the Sun revolved around the Earth, people used to think maggots would arise spontaneously out of rotting meat. Italian physician Francesco Redi finally proved the connection between flies and maggots in 1668. Redi compared two groups of meat: the first left exposed to insects, and the second group covered by a barrier of gauze. In the exposed meat, flies laid eggs, which quickly hatched into maggots. On the gauze-covered meat, no maggots appeared, but Redi observed fly eggs on the outer surface of the gauze. Establishing a Relationship Between Cadavers and Arthropods In the 1700 and 1800s, physicians in both France and Germany observed mass exhumations of corpses. The French doctors M. Orfila and C. Lesueur published two handbooks on exhumations, in which they noted the presence of insects on the exhumed cadavers. Some of these arthropods were identified to species in their 1831 publication. This work established a relationship between specific insects and decomposing bodies. Fifty years later, the German doctor Reinhard used a systematic approach to study this relationship. Reinhard exhumed bodies to collect and identify the insects present with the bodies. He specifically noted the presence of phorid flies, which he left to an entomology colleague to identify. Using the Succession of Insects to Determine a Postmortem Interval By the 1800s, scientists knew that certain insects would inhabit decomposing bodies. Interest now turned to the matter of succession. Physicians and legal investigators began questioning which insects would appear first on a cadaver, and what their life cycles could reveal about a crime. In 1855, French doctor Bergeret dArbois was the first to use insect succession to determine the postmortem interval of human remains. A couple remodeling their Paris home uncovered the mummified remains of a child behind the mantelpiece. Suspicion immediately fell on the couple, though they had only recently moved into the house. Bergeret, who autopsied the victim, noted evidence of insect populations on the corpse. Using methods similar to those employed by forensic entomologists today, he concluded that the body had been placed behind the wall years earlier, in 1849. Bergeret used what was known about insect life cycles and successive colonization of a corpse to arrive at this date. His report convinced police to charge the previous tenants of the home, who were subsequently convicted of the murder. French veterinarian Jean Pierre Megnin spent years studying and documenting the predictability of insect colonization in cadavers. In 1894, he published La Faune des Cadavres, the culmination of his medico-legal experience. In it, he outlined eight waves of insect succession that could be applied during investigations of suspicious deaths. Megnin also noted that buried corpses were not susceptible to this same series of colonization. Just two stages of colonization invaded these cadavers. Modern forensic entomology draws on the observations and studies of all these pioneers.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Daniel R. Headrick, The Tools of Empire Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Daniel R. Headrick, The Tools of Empire - Essay Example He argues throughout the book, with reference to many well-researched examples, that pre-Industrial Revolution, the journeying, living and conquering of such regions simply was not possible, as the technology was just not available for this to be achieved, managed or sustained successfully. However, as Headrick argues, with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the technological advances this forged, these technological advances allowed people to travel and live in countries other than their own, such that the expansion of the Empire became possible at this period in history. Continuing on from this general introduction, throughout the book, Headrick analyzes the technological advances that allowed this dominance to proceed, both by presenting a straight-forward mechanical analysis of the actions of the people and the inventions and technological advances involved, and by presenting a detailed analysis of secondary sources, which allows him to offer an interpretation of the thoughts and motivations of the people involved; this e... Thus, the text moves forward apace, discussing what could be rather dry historical texts and documents, in a light and easy to read manner. This use of interpreting secondary sources for his own means, to present information from entirely his own perspective leads, however, to several major problems with the text, which will be discussed later in this review. In the book, Headrick spends a long time discussing inventions of relevance in this period; for example, much of the book is devoted to a discussion of anti-malarial drugs and how they enabled Europeans to travel, live and work in the tropical regions. This discussion is not, however, centred around why there was a desire to colonize and conquer these regions and its people; indeed, the book steers away from this subject at every opportunity, almost as if it is something not to be discussed. Yet this is precisely the issue that is opportune in such a tome: in scientific or technological achievements, it is usually the motivations which drive people to achieve leaps of progress, and not the leaps of progress themselves which drive people to want to achieve technological or scientific advancement. It would have been extremely interesting, as a reader, to be presented with alternate arguments for why at this particular point in history, aside from technological advances which enabled travel to these regions to become easier, Europeans decided to travel to these regions - what were they seeking Where did the funds for travel and expeditions come from How did they plan and execute journeys and colonisation strategies A more strategic analysis of the era, in terms of political and economic motivations would have been welcome, as this would have offered a complete picture of the events of the time, which

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Privacy Laws related to Information Technology use Research Paper

Privacy Laws related to Information Technology use - Research Paper Example In this regard, it is arguable that the privacy of individual data depends on the ability of organizations to employ security measures for the protection of individual information and private data (Kerr, 2004). The various online companies and websites such as Facebook, Google, LimkedIn, Yahoo and Skype are mandated by the law to protect the privacy of individuals. Regardless of the provisions of the law, it is notable that many online organizations and companies have disclosed private information to third parties such as advertisers who use it without the consent of the holders of the information. Sensitive information such as financial records, bank and credit card details are also protected by the legal framework. This is due to the need for the security of personal data and the consequent prevention of possible fraud (Gillmor, 1998). The modern computing and transactional environments are characterized by online shopping and banking. This means that the users of the online bankin g services are predisposed to the risk of disclosure of their private information to organizations (Messmer, 2001). Additionally, digital records of employees within various organization is at a risk f unauthorized access and use. ... that organizations and individuals are protected from unauthorized use of private information by internal or external intruders to information systems (Miller and Tucker, 2007). The law also protects individual information from misuse by government agencies and the media (Sullivan, 2005). According to the fourth amendment, individual data and information must be kept private and free from unauthorized access and use (Lock, Conger and Oz, 1998). This illustrates the role of the law in ensuring that organizations keep the information on their employees and clients as private as necessary (OConnor and Matthews, 2011). Infringement of the privacy of individual information is thus a legal felony (Thibodeau, 2001). Sometimes governing authorities such as the police perform thorough surveillance of a suspect’s private information and activities. Regardless of the justification that the governing authorities give for the infringement of individual privacy, such actions are legally wro ng (Lock, Conger and Oz, 1998). The emergency of creative, innovative and up to date technological tools represents the challenge which many individuals and organizations face in trying to achieve adherence to information privacy laws. Nonetheless, the application of information systems within organizations and institutions is attributed to the increased challenge of securing private information (Canoni, 2004). However, organizations have laid security policies which are geared at promoting the enforcement of legal framework on the privacy of private information (Bernstein, 2007). Information security policies play a significant role in defining the procedure of access, retrieval, modification and use of private information with a view of ensuring preservation of individual rights to privacy

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Essay --

Acknowledgments ______________________________________________________________________________ Thank you for the support and encouragement that you have given me throughout the trials of my experiment. I would like to thank my parents for the support they have given me and for helping me when I was in a tough situation. I would like to thank my teacher, Mr. Johnson for the support that he has given me and for his guidance and encouragement. I would also like to thank my dentist for supplying me with my prime ingredient of this experiment, teeth. Purpose ______________________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effect of beverages, such as, orange juice, coca cola, milk, coffee, and water, on the rate of decomposition of teeth. This experiment will be able to determine which of the five beverages cause a tooth to decompose faster than the others. These specific drinks were chosen because they are what normal people have in their refrigerator or pantry on a normal basis. Most americans consume coffee, and some sort of juice in the morning, throughout the day they should have at least of glass of water, and most people have at least on soft drink a day. The acid in orange juice and the carbonation in soda can damage the enamel of the tooth causing it to erode faster (Orange, July 2, 2009). The lack of saliva can cause decay of teeth because saliva protects the gums in the mouth from infection. Some causes of reduced saliva are coffee and cola drinks (Reduce,April 21, 2012). This experiment reveals which of these five drinks increase the process of decay faster than others. This will allow the reader to choose a drink that wil... ...rom Mays, S. (1998). The Archaeology of Human Bones. London: Routledge. Retrieved from Orange Juice Acid 'Can Wash Away Enamel on Teeth' (2009, July 2). Daily Mail (London), p. 22. Retrieved from Reduce Dental Decay Factors. (2012, April 21). Coffs Coast Advocate (Coffs Harbour, Australia). Retrieved from Teeth. (2013). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). The Columbia University Press. Retrieved from Tooth Decay-Cause. (n.d.). WebMD - Better information. Better health.. Retrieved October 9, 2013, from What Kind of Acids are in Soda. (2011, August 17). Live Strong.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS ABSTRACT: Disasters of both natural and technological origin have a considerable impact on communities. The effects of disasters in India are significantly reduced by well established counter disaster arrangements at all three levels of government. These arrangements comprise comprehensive plans of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery and in more recent times, of mitigation. The economic effects of disasters can be devastating and widespread.When disasters strike houses, businesses and community infrastructure get damaged or destroyed and people’s livelihoods are temporarily and sometimes permanently disrupted. Physical damage is the most visible economic impact of disasters. Major natural disasters can and do have severe negative short-run economic impacts. Disasters also appear to have adverse longer-term consequences for economic growth, development and poverty reduction. But, negative impacts are not inevitable. Vulnerabilit y is shifting quickly, especially in countries experiencing economic transformation – rapid growth, urbanization and related technical and social changes.In the Caribbean and Bangladesh there is evidence of both declining sensitivity to tropical storms and floods and increased resilience resulting from both economic transformation and public actions for disaster reduction. The largest concentration of high risk countries, increasingly vulnerable to climatic hazards, is in Sub-Saharan Africa. Risks emanating from geophysical hazards need to be better recognized in highly exposed urban areas across the world because their potential costs are rising exponentially with economic development.Natural disasters cause significant budgetary pressures, with both narrowly fiscal short-term impacts and wider long-term development implications. Reallocation is the primary fiscal response to disaster. Disasters have little impact on trends in total aid flows. Keywords: Disaster Impacts, Dir ect Economic Impacts, Indirect Economic Impacts, Intangible Economic Impacts. Submitted by: Dr. A. PADMAVATHI, Guest Faculty, Department of MCA, S. V. U. C. C. M&C. S. , S. V. University, Tirupati-517502. Introduction: The economic effects of disasters are mostly seen as physical damage to infrastructure.More often than not loss of income through loss of trading activity and the time taken to re-establish such activity, particularly for agricultural industries, is overlooked. The consequences of extended periods of trading or production down-time can result in bankruptcy, forced sale, business closure, loss of experienced workers, a depleted customer base and population shrinkage. These consequences are exacerbated by community losses resulting in a reduction in disposable income. The flow-on through the disaster affected community has been likened to the domino effect.It addresses the economic consequences of disasters on communities and includes a framework of economic recovery pr inciples as well as strategies to implement those principles. In this publication the term â€Å"economic† is used with respect to the costs to the community caused by the disaster while â€Å"financial† is used with respect to those schemes aimed at providing monetary sources to assist recovery. The range of economic effects and consequences on a disaster affected community is relative to the specific nature of the event and the economic demographics of the affected community Economic Consequences of Disasters:The economic effects of disasters can be devastating and widespread. When disasters strike houses, businesses and community infrastructure get damaged or destroyed and people’s livelihoods are temporarily and sometimes permanently disrupted. Physical damage is the most visible economic impact of disasters. However, the less visible impacts such as lost income through being unable to trade are just as significant and the consequences often last longer than the physical damage (for example, bankruptcy and business closures). The flow-on effects through a community can be pervasive.The range of economic effects and consequences for a disaster-affected community vary greatly and depend on both the nature of the event and the economic health of the community. It is also important to recognise that communities are diverse. In some cases, disaster-affected communities recover and prosper, in others the adverse economic impact has a domino effect that spreads throughout the community. What makes some communities recover and prosper and others decline in the aftermath of a disaster? What are key characteristics of disaster-resistant communities?These are important questions and are critical to understanding the economic recovery process. The principles and strategies identified later in this report provide a starting point for considering these questions. The economic consequences of disasters can be classified in a variety of ways. No singl e framework will cover and prescribe every possible impact a disaster might have. Each disaster has unique characteristics and consequently in any attempt to classify these impacts there will always be impacts that do not fit neatly within the classification.Nevertheless a classification framework is a useful guide or tool we can use to tackle these issues. Almost all impacts of disasters have an economic dimension, even if this economic effect cannot be measured. Economic impacts are typically divided into two categories: tangible (those impacts we can assign a dollar value to) and intangible (impacts which are not easily expressed in monetary terms). These impacts are then further subdivided into direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts are those that result from the physical destruction or damage to buildings, infrastructure, vehicles and crops etc.Indirect impacts are due to the consequences of the damage or destruction. Figure 1 illustrates the impacts of disasters using thr ee main categories-direct, indirect and intangible. An alternative approach is to examine the impacts of disasters in terms of who or what is affected. Three groupings are common: * Public infrastructure and community facilities; * Business enterprises (commercial, industrial, retail, service, agricultural etc); and * Residents and households. Using figure 1 and BTE Report 103 a brief discussion of the direct, indirect and intangible impacts of disasters on each of these three groups follows.FIGURE 1 THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF A DISASTER Culture & Heritage Clean up Infrastracture Intangible impacts Health Aspects Death & injury I Indirect Impacts Business Disruption Disaster Impacts Direct Impacts Agriculture Commercial buildings 1. Direct Economic Impacts: Public Infrastructure and Community Facilities: Lifelines (such as water and sanitation systems, electricity, gas, telecommunications and transport) are vulnerable to all types of disasters. Direct damage to lifeline infrastructure i ncludes the immediate physical damage (eg. oads cracked or washed away, destroyed electrical transformers and so on) and also the damage which may take some time before becoming visible (eg. accelerated road deterioration due to the effect of water intrusion under road pavements). Public buildings include schools, child care centres, kindergartens, hospitals, nursing homes, neighbourhood centres, churches, entertainment/art/cultural centres, museums, clubs and so on. Direct damage to public buildings can also be thought of using the break up into structural (eg. roofs, walls etc), contents (eg. urniture, floor coverings and specialist items like sound systems and paintings etc) and external (eg. Playground equipment, swimming pools etc) damage. Business Enterprises include commercial, industrial, retail, service and agricultural business types. The economic impact of disasters on agricultural enterprises is often treated separately from other business types. Essentially however the impact on businesses can be viewed as falling into 3 main areas. * structural damage to buildings such as shops,factories, plants, sheds, barns, warehouses, hotels and so on.This includes damage to foundations, walls, floors, roofs, doors, in-builtfurniture, windows etc. * contents damage to fixtures and fittings (eg. carpets), furniture, office equipment, farm equipment, records, product stock (finished manufactured products, works in progress and input materials), crops, pastures, livestock etc. and * external damage, for example, to motor vehicles and fences. Residents and Households: The residential sector includes houses, flats, unit, townhouses and so on. The break up of direct damage into structural (eg. roofs, walls etc), contents (eg. furniture, floor coverings etc) and external (eg. wimming pools, gardens etc) is equally useful for this category. 2. Indirect Economic Impacts: Indirect impacts are those that are incurred as a consequence of the event, but are not due to the direct impact. Many indirect impacts are common to the public/community sectors business, and household (for example, disruption and clean up). Disruption effects: The disruption to the community, businesses and households caused by disasters is pervasive. The economic impact of disruption and its consequences for community recovery is often overlooked, as economic recovery can tend to focus on the highly visible direct physical damage.The following categories list the common forms of disruption relevant to each area. Sector/Area of impact| Disruption Examples| Business| —Lost or deferred production (eg. manufacturing, agriculture, services etc)—Lost or deferred income/trade/sales/value added (eg. Tourism operators, retail traders etc)—Increased costs (eg. freight, inputs, agistment)| Public services and networks| —Transport (traffic delays, extra —operating costs etc)—Loss of computer controlled systems—Loss of other lifelines (eg. electricity)—Government services (eg. ducation)| Households| —Additional costs (eg. alternative accommodation and transport, heating, drying out costs, medical costs etc)| Natural disasters can cause serious disruption to affected businesses which may not be able to operate during the event, and for some time afterwards, while the premises are being cleaned and equipment repaired. Business lost during this period can have devastating financial consequences and in some cases the business may not recover at all. Loss of farm income due to a natural disaster can affect the economies of country towns.For example, the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics (ABARE 2000) estimates that farm expenditure represents at least a third of the economies of towns with less than 1000 people. Disasters that reduce farm expenditure can therefore have a major effect on the economies of small towns. Clean up: Cleaning up after a disaster is another obvious area of indirec t impact. The impact for public and community infrastructure, businesses and households is essentially the time it takes and the costs of cleaning materials.Clean up activities typically include removal of mud and debris, disassembly and cleaning of machinery and equipment, removal of destroyed household and business contents items and so on. 3. Intangible Economic Impacts Intangible impacts are often described as a ‘catch all’ that includes all those costs that are very difficult to estimate, for which there is no agreed method of estimation and for which there is no market to provide a benchmark. Evidence suggests that the size of intangible costs is substantial and although most cannot be quantified, in many cases they do still have an economic impact that should not be ignored.Sector/Area of impact| Intangible impact examples| Business| —Loss of confidence—Loss of future contracts—Loss of experienced staff| Public/Community| —Health impac ts (deferral of procedures, reduced quality of care etc)—Death and injury—Loss of items of cultural significance—Environmental impacts—Heritage losses—Lack of access to education, health, defence, art galleries and museums etc| Residents and households| —Loss of personal memorabilia—Inconvenience and disruption, especially to schooling and social life. —Stress induced ill-health and mortality—Pets—Quality of life—Dislocation| Conclusion:Assistance that ensures the survival of the existing economic infrastructure of a region is vital to disaster recovery, but it should not be so great as to affect the natural economic laws of supply and demand operating on the sales and distribution of existing products or services. Government can initiate major projects, that can assist in erasing some of the bad memories of the past and provide a boost in construction and service jobs into the area. References: (1) http:// en. wikipedia. org. (2) www. ndmindia. nic. in/ (3) www. ndma. gov. in/ (4) disastermgmt. bih. nic. in/ (5) http://saarc-sdmc. nic. in/index. asp